Guia Completo para Cultivo de Cannabis

Complete Guide to Growing Cannabis

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Cannabis cultivation can be simply categorized into two main methods: indoor and outdoor. Each method has its particularities, advantages and disadvantages, depending on the grower's objective, local climatic conditions and available resources.

But what exactly does cannabis mean? Also known as cannabis sativa, this multifaceted plant serves a range of purposes, from producing medicines and foods to manufacturing textiles, treating various physical and mental health conditions, and recreational use. Cannabis is renowned for its extreme adaptability to human needs, consolidating itself as an ancient culture and one of the most versatile botanical species at the service of humanity.

If you are new to the cannabis cultivation journey and are looking for reliable guides to get started, look no further! Instead of a PDF, Buy Seeds offers a comprehensive introduction below that covers everything you need to know to successfully grow your own marijuana, from the germination stage to harvest. This information is designed to give you a solid starting point into the fascinating world of cannabis cultivation. Read on to dive into the cannabis cultivation process and turn your curiosity into practical knowledge.

1 - Define a space for your Grow
The Cannabis Cultivation Manual details the crucial initial decision for any grower: opting for indoor or outdoor cultivation. This choice is based on the specific advantages and disadvantages of each method, adapting to the reality and conditions of each grower.

For those inclined toward indoor growing, preparing with adequate lighting equipment, ventilation, and exhaust systems is essential. This modality allows precise control over the growing environment, crucial for the optimal development of cannabis. In outdoor cultivation, the sun takes on the role of primary lighting source, benefiting from its cost-free availability and effectiveness. However, growing cannabis outdoors introduces variables like rain, winds, and humidity fluctuations, which can impact plant development.

In the Brazilian context, outdoor cultivation in densely populated urban areas or places with high circulation of people is not recommended. Visibility and risk of detection in these environments present significant challenges, requiring caution on the part of growers.

This handbook is a comprehensive guide for those looking to delve into the world of cannabis cultivation, offering valuable insights into how to navigate the choices and challenges inherent in this practice.

Outdoor

Outdoor cultivation

Indoor

Indoor cultivation

Benefits :
Sun light
No energy bill
Larger plants
Ample space
More pest resistant plants

Disadvantages:
Slow to bloom
More exposed to pests
No temperature and humidity control No vegetative state control
More vulnerable to complaints exposed to rain

Benefits :
Total control of the environment
Lower incidence of pests
Higher percentage of THC
Multiple annual harvests
Greater secrecy

Disadvantages :
High energy cost
Investment in equipment
Limited spaces
More susceptible to spider mites Requires greater attention

2 - Ensure the safety of your Grow
Starting your cannabis cultivation project requires a crucial first step: choosing and properly preparing the location for cultivation. Under Brazil's current prohibition laws, growers need to adopt specific strategies to ensure discretion and avoid unwanted attention from neighbors or authorities. This guide is designed to guide you in preparing a grow space that minimizes the risk of detection, focusing on controlling the most tell-tale elements: cannabis's distinctive odor and the need for intense, constant lighting.

For enthusiasts who choose outdoor cultivation, that is, in the open air, attention to detail must be even greater. It is imperative to ensure that the selected location is out of visual and physical reach of unauthorized third parties. Discretion is more than a precaution; It is the basis for successful cannabis cultivation in a strict regulatory environment like Brazil.

This manual offers a comprehensive look at how to set up your grow space to maximize the chances of a safe and prosperous harvest, emphasizing the importance of maintaining secrecy as a critical component of this journey. By following the guidelines outlined here, you will be well equipped to begin your cannabis cultivation with the confidence that you have taken the necessary precautions for a successful and discreet operation.

Remember: the secret to success is the secret.

To optimize your cannabis cultivation, ensure your grow space is completely sealed from light, water, and odors. The use of charcoal filters is essential to neutralize the characteristic odor of cannabis, preventing it from spreading throughout the neighborhood. Air circulation is also a key factor, with fans playing a crucial role in renewing the air and maintaining a constant temperature between 22 and 26ºC. Implementing effective exhaust and refrigeration systems is crucial for plant health and yield.

The transition of cannabis from the vegetative phase to flowering requires uninterrupted periods of total darkness, making an environment completely isolated from external light sources paramount. Protecting the grow from light infiltration not only promotes uninterrupted flowering but also prevents unwanted attention due to the brightness of your grow.

Maximizing internal reflectivity is another important aspect of promoting robust plant development; however, the common practice of covering walls with aluminum foil may not be the most efficient. Walls painted white or covered with reflective material specifically for grows are more effective options, ensuring that plants receive abundant and uniform light. This guide provides crucial insights for anyone looking to maximize the potential of their cannabis cultivation through an optimized grow space setup.

3 - Choosing Seeds or Clones
After properly preparing your growing space, the crucial time comes to start planting. Growers basically have two options to start growing cannabis: using seeds or using cuttings (clones). Choosing a cutting means working with an exact replica of a mother plant selected for its superior characteristics, ensuring reproduction of the female plant without surprises.

On the other hand, seeds present a versatile way to start a crop. Seeds can be stored for long periods and planted when most convenient. With genetic evolution, the market today has regular, feminized and automatic seeds. Regular seeds, resulting from natural pollination, have an equal probability of developing male or female plants. Although there is a declining trend in preference for regular seeds, many growers still opt for them, especially those interested in generating their own seeds or who don't mind growing male plants.

Regular seed production requires the male plant to pollinate the female, a process that directs much of the female plant's energy toward seed generation, negatively impacting the yield of flowers. If seed production is not the objective, the recommendation is to identify and remove male plants as soon as possible to maximize the production of female flowers.

The choice between seeds and cuttings directly influences the following stages of cultivation, deciding not only the type of maintenance required, but also affecting the production potential and quality of your cannabis harvest.

Choose your seed at Buy Seeds !

4 - Cannabis Photoperiod
The concept of photoperiod, which refers to the alternation between light and dark periods within a day, is fundamental in cannabis cultivation, directly influencing its growth and flowering phases. During the summer solstice, with longer days, cannabis enters the vegetative phase, dedicating itself to growth. At the equinox, when day and night are equal, typical of autumn and spring, the plant enters the flowering phase.

For successful indoor cultivation, controlling the photoperiod allows the grower to guide the plant between the vegetative and flowering phases:


- Vegetative Phase: To keep the plant growing, it must be exposed to at least 18 hours of light followed by 6 hours of darkness, or even 24 hours of continuous light, imitating summer light conditions.
- Flowering Phase: To induce flowering, the lighting scheme should be adjusted to 12 hours of light followed by 12 hours of darkness, simulating the more balanced conditions of autumn.

Changing the photoperiod to 12 hours of light and 12 hours of darkness marks the beginning of flowering. Using a timer is crucial to maintaining the accuracy of this cycle.

Important Tip: Automatic seeds offer additional flexibility, being able to remain under uninterrupted light for 24 hours without affecting their flowering cycle, ideal for those looking to simplify light management in their crops.

This photoperiod control is an essential technique for maximizing yield and quality in an indoor growing environment, allowing the grower to simulate ideal conditions for each stage of cannabis development.

Vegetative (spring-summer)

6pm

Flowering (autumn-winter)

12/12h

5 - Lighting for your Cultivation
Full Spectrum LED Indoor Grow Light

To achieve excellent results in cannabis cultivation, the choice of lighting is crucial, with the light intensity being directly proportional to the plants' yield. An ideal grow environment requires a minimum of 2000 lumens per square foot. However, for above average results, an intensity of 5,000 lumens per square foot is recommended, while the ideal standard is around 7,000 to 7,500 lumens per square foot.

When selecting light bulbs, you need to consider that although some can provide a high amount of lumens, they can also generate a significant amount of heat. This may require an additional air conditioning system to maintain optimal temperature conditions, as high temperatures, such as 40ºC, can harm the plant's performance, regardless of the lamp power.

On the market, there are several types of lamps suitable for growing cannabis, each with its specific characteristics suitable for different needs and growing scenarios. Careful selection of lighting not only ensures effective cultivation but also contributes to resource optimization, ensuring that plant growth is maximized under ideal lighting and temperature conditions.

Benefits :
Very efficient lamp.
High performance system.
Economical equipment
Disadvantages :
Generates a lot of heat.
Only works on 220v networks
Requires a refrigeration system


LED lighting is quickly gaining favor among cannabis growers, positioning itself as a promising alternative to traditional lighting options. Although there is some resistance from some experienced growers to adopting LED technology, a growing number of growers recognize the numerous benefits it offers.

Among the most obvious advantages of using LED in cannabis cultivation are energy efficiency and longevity, not to mention the ability to generate abundant, high-quality harvests. The controversy between LED advocates and supporters of HPS (High-Pressure Sodium) lamps persists, however, practical results demonstrate that it is perfectly possible to achieve exceptional results using only LED lighting.

This trend in preference for LED lighting reflects not only recognition of its potential to improve crop yields, but also a growing awareness of the importance of sustainability and cost-effectiveness in the cannabis cultivation process.

Benefits :
It heats up a little
Works with 110v
Longer life than HPS
Disadvantages :
High investment
Large panels are needed to obtain good results.

For growers looking for an economical solution during the initial growth phase from seeds and cuttings, fluorescent lamps are a suitable choice. Its use is common in the vegetative stage of the plant, mainly due to its more affordable cost compared to high-intensity options.

Although plant growth under fluorescent lighting may not reach the vigor seen with high-intensity bulbs, full-time fluorescent growing is completely viable. The more intense blue spectrum of these bulbs can actually support vegetative development. Therefore, despite having a lower yield, fluorescent lamps offer an effective alternative for those looking to minimize costs without completely abandoning quality when growing cannabis.

Benefits :
Do not worry
They are economical
Works on 110v
Disadvantages :
Low productivity
Need to install multiple lamps


Prioritizing safety in the electrical installation of your cultivation space is essential to avoid fire risks. It is essential to check whether the power panel supports the load required by the lamps used in cultivation. Hiring a qualified electrician to install and check your entire electrical system is a crucial step.

The most common strategy among growers is to start growing under fluorescent lights until the plants reach 5 to 7 centimeters in height. After this initial period, it is recommended to transfer the plants to an environment lit by HQI or HPS lamps, adapting to the specific needs of your cultivation. Adjusting the lighting as the plants develop is essential to ensure their optimal growth.

6 - Substrates for Cannabis Cultivation
Soil selection is a critical aspect that directly influences the success of cannabis cultivation and deserves detailed attention from growers, especially beginners. Ignoring the importance of soil can significantly harm plant development. The use of pre-fertilized soil, common in gardening stores, is not recommended for growing cannabis. Instead, the recommendation is to opt for inert substrates — which are nutrient-free — and add specific fertilizers for cannabis. This approach allows precise control over the nutrients that the plant receives, adapting the nutrition for each stage of its growth.

In addition to choosing the substrate, it is essential to ensure that the soil is well aerated to allow adequate oxygenation of the roots. Compacted soils should be avoided at all costs, as in addition to hindering root growth, they compromise water drainage, which can lead to root rot. Among the most popular inert substrates for growing cannabis are peat, perlite, coconut fiber and coconut dust. Some growers choose to enrich the soil with organic amendments such as worm castings, castor bean cake and bone meal to keep the soil lightly nutritious in the early stages of plant growth.

Always remember: an ideal soil for growing cannabis must be light, aerated and have efficient water drainage.

7 - Water and Irrigation in your Cultivation
A frequent challenge for beginning growers is balancing the amount of water for their plants, often resulting in excessive watering, a problem known as "overwatering," which can significantly weaken the plant. Overwatering prevents adequate gas exchange and absorption of essential nutrients, compromising the plant's health. It is crucial to differentiate between signs of lack and excess water to avoid damage.

A clear indication of overwatering is the presence of wilted leaves that persist even after recent watering. Contrary to what many may think, this does not signal the need for more water, but rather the opposite. Furthermore, leaves that have a yellowish or light green color may also suggest that the plant is being watered more than necessary.

Understanding and identifying these signs is essential to ensure healthy plant development, avoiding the common mistake of overwatering in an attempt to promote growth.


Formulating the perfect watering strategy for your plants involves considering variables such as plant size, pot volume, type of substrate used and specific environmental conditions. An occasional cycle of dry soil can benefit plant development, while prolonged absence of water can harm plant growth. Therefore, finding the right watering balance is vital, although there is no fixed rule, largely depending on the perception and skill of the grower.

During watering, the absorption of nutrients by the plant is influenced by the pH of the water, highlighting the importance of maintaining adequate levels. An optimal pH, between 5.8 and 6.8, facilitates the balanced absorption of all the nutrients necessary for healthy growth. This pH adjustment is crucial to maximizing watering effectiveness and supporting optimal plant development.

8 - Fertilizers, Nutrients and Food
To thrive from the vegetative phase to flowering, cannabis demands a diversity of nutrients, acting as true food for the plant. The main macronutrients, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), are crucial and consumed in large quantities. Often referenced on fertilizer packaging by the sequence NPK, these elements are the basis of cannabis nutrition. However, for complete development, the plant also needs secondary macronutrients such as magnesium (Mg), sulfur (S) and calcium (Ca), in addition to a series of essential micronutrients.

During the vegetative stage, nitrogen (N) consumption is intensified, while the flowering phase requires an increase in potassium (K) intake. A fertilizer with an NPK of 20-10-10 may be adequate for growth, but for flowering, a 5-20-10 NPK formula is recommended. However, it is vital to avoid "overfert," a common mistake among beginning growers that can seriously harm plants. Signs of too much fertilizer include drying, spots and curling of leaf tips.

In addition to available commercial fertilizers, creating home compost from plant and organic waste offers a valuable alternative. Although more labor-intensive, this approach can enrich cannabis with more intense flavors and aromas, as reported by many experienced growers.

9- Temperature and humidity
To maximize growth and production of quality buds, maintaining ideal environmental conditions for cannabis is essential. The perfect temperature range for cultivation is between 22 and 26ºC, with a relative humidity of approximately 50%. The use of high-pressure lamps in indoor cultivation can generate excessive heat, requiring the implementation of an effective refrigeration system.

Temperatures above 29ºC result in an increase in energy consumption by the plant for transpiration and heat dissipation processes, compromising growth and reducing bud production. In regions of Brazil where temperatures can exceed 40ºC, such as in some areas of the North and Northeast, the use of air conditioning becomes crucial to protect plants from extreme heat.

On the other hand, in the south of the country or in higher altitude regions, where the climate is colder, low temperatures can slow down the plant's development and even weaken it. It is worth noting that ambient temperature has a significant impact on relative humidity, with higher temperatures reducing humidity and vice versa.

During the vegetative phase, humidity can be maintained up to 70%, while in the flowering phase, it is recommended to adjust the humidity to around 40 to 50% in order to prevent mold on the buds. Keeping these parameters tuned is vital to ensuring a healthy and productive cannabis cultivation.

10 - Flowering of Cannabis
By implementing a photoperiod cycle of 12 hours of light followed by 12 hours of darkness, cannabis begins the production of a specific hormone, phytochrome, redirecting its energy to the flowering phase. It is at this critical stage that the plant reveals its sex, a fundamental aspect for growers seeking to optimize flower production.

Female plants develop small pistils and calyces at the points where the stems meet, unlike male plants, which form sacs similar to small spheres. These are signs of pre-flowers, which appear in the first weeks of the flowering phase. Identifying the sex of the plant from the seed, however, is not possible, highlighting the relevance of this moment for crop management.

Male plants, when producing pollen and seeds, can unintentionally pollinate nearby female plants, resulting in the production of regular seeds. Such an event considerably diverts the female plant's energy to seed generation, significantly deteriorating flower yield and resin production. Therefore, for growers focused on obtaining maximum high-quality flowers, removing male plants becomes a recommended procedure.

Finally, the average duration of the flowering phase varies between 7 to 9 weeks, although predominantly Sativa strains may require an extended period to complete this cycle. Understanding these nuances and properly regulating the photoperiod can directly influence the quality and quantity of the cannabis harvest.

Let's see:

Introduction to the Early Stages of Flowering
In the initial two weeks of flowering, it is crucial to pay attention to your plant's special requirements. Replace nutrients aimed at the vegetative phase with those specific to flowering, ensuring optimal bud development.

In the second week, bud formation becomes evident, with white pistils emerging from the stems, indicating that your plant is female.

Progress During the Third and Fourth Weeks
By the third week, the plant is expected to have grown 25 to 50% in size since flowering began. This is the moment when trichomes and resin glands begin to be present, anticipating the promising quality of the harvest. Vegetative growth ceases, allowing the plant to direct its energy exclusively toward developing dense, rich flowers. The fragrance becomes more distinct in the fourth week due to increased trichome production.

Development in the Fifth and Sixth Weeks
At this stage, existing flowers become noticeably denser and new flowers continue to emerge throughout the plant. The change in the color of the pistils to a more reddish tone, together with the trichomes becoming opaque, signals advanced maturation.

Final Phase: Seventh to Ninth Week
During the seventh to ninth week, it is advisable to stop fertilizing, limiting yourself to watering only with water. Depending on the specific variety of your plant, this period includes the final ripening phase. The intense aroma that exudes from the plant at this stage is a reminder of the need for preventive measures for discretion.

This overview proposes detailed monitoring of your cannabis plant throughout the stages of its flowering, ensuring adequate care at each stage for a successful harvest.

11 - Harvesting and Drying Cannabis

Now it's time to grab a magnifying glass and observe closely: if the pistils are in that characteristic reddish tone and the trichomes have an opaque or amber appearance, your plant has reached the ideal point for harvesting. Proceed with cutting the flowering branches, cleaning them carefully to remove excess leaves. For effective drying, the buds need to be kept in a dark, airy place with controlled humidity for two weeks. Once drying is complete, place the flowers in a glass container, storing in a cool, dark place.

Impatience can lead some growers to bring forward the harvest, significantly compromising the final quality. Choosing the right time to harvest is as crucial as all the effort dedicated to cultivation. Harvesting prematurely can result in a considerable loss of plant potency and productivity.

It is important to recognize that different varieties may exhibit different signs as they approach ideal harvest maturity. Some can keep their pistils white, even when ready to be harvested. Exchanging experiences with a grower who has worked with the same variety can offer valuable insights and ensure the success of your effort.

Glossary

Breeder : Cultivator who creates his own seeds.
Bud : Aside from marijuana.
Indoor Cultivation : Cultivation indoors.
Outdoor Cultivation : Cultivation in an open environment, exposed to nature and sunlight.
Clone : ​​Same as Estáquia.
Static : Seedling removed from the plant in order to create a new plant.
Grow : Cultivation space.
Grower : Cultivator, gardener.
Growshops : Store of products for growing cannabis.
Headshop : Store of products and utensils for cannabis consumption.
Inert : Containing no nutrients.
Organic : material of animal or vegetable origin, which does not contain chemical or mineral substances.
Overfert : Excess fertilizer, which causes serious damage to the plant.
Overwater : Excess water, when the plant is drowned.
Pistils : White hairs that the female plant produces during the flowering phase.
Spider Mite : A common pest in indoor grows. It is a tiny spider that usually stays on the underside of leaves and sucks their sap. The red mite.
Trichome : Resin produced by cannabis during foration, small crystals that form around the flower.


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